Year 9 — Science

Term 1: B1 Cell Biology & B2 Organisation

Cell Biology explores the structure and nature of cells and how they develop.

Organisation explores how cells work together and focuses in particular on how the digestive system and circulatory system functions.

B1 30 minute assessment covering: Cell Structure, Cell Division, Transport in Cells.

B2 30 minute assessment covering: Principles of Organisation, Animal Tissue, Organs & Organ Systems.

Nucleus

An organelle that controls the cell and contains the genetic information.

Cell Membrane

A layer around the cell which helps control substances entering and leaving the cell.

Cytoplasm

The material within a living cell where the majority of chemical reactions take place.

Chloroplast

A cell structure found in green plants that contains chlorophyll for photosynthesis.

Cell Wall

A layer lying outside the cell membrane that provides structure to plant, fungi and bacteria cells.

Prokaryotic Cells

Single cells of bacteria and Archaeans with DNA found in a loop not enclosed in a nucleus.

Eukaryotic Cells

Cells from eukaryotes that have a cell membrane, cytoplasm, and genetic material enclosed in a nucleus.

Specialised

When cells or tissues become adapted to carry out their specific function.

Mitosis

Cell division that results in genetically identical diploid cells.

Osmosis

The process whereby water moves from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration through a semi-permeable membrane.

Stem Cells

Unspecialised body cells (found in bone marrow) that can develop into other, specialised cells that the body needs.

Respiration

The process used by all organisms to release the energy they need from food.

Active Transport

The movement of substances from a dilute solution to a more concentrated solution against a concentration gradient, requiring energy from respiration.

Enzymes

Biological catalysts, usually proteins.

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Term 2: C1 Atomic structure and The Periodic Table & C2 Bonding, Structure and Properties of matter

Students will learn how the periodic table provides chemists with a structured organisation of the known chemical elements from which they can make sense of their physical and chemical properties. The historical development of the periodic table and models of atomic structure provide good examples of how scientific ideas and explanations develop over time as new evidence emerges. The arrangement of elements in the modern periodic table can be explained in terms of atomic structure which provides evidence for the model of a nuclear atom with electrons in energy levels. Chemists use theories of structure and bonding to explain the physical and chemical properties of materials. Analysis of structures shows that atoms can be arranged in a variety of ways, some of which are molecular while others are giant structures. Theories of bonding explain how atoms are held together and scientists use this knowledge to engineer new materials.

C1 Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table - 30 minute end of unit assessment covering: Models of the Atom, Symbols, Relative Atomic Mass, Electronic Charge & Isotopes, Periodic Table.

C2 Bonding, Structure, and the Properties of Matter - 30 minute end of unit assessment covering: Chemical Bonds, How Bonding and Structure are related to the Properties of Substances, Structure and Bonding of Carbon.

Compound

Pure substances made up of two or more elements chemically joined together.

Atom

The basic “building block” of an element which cannot be chemically broken down.

Element

A substance made out of only one type of atom.

Mixture

The combination of different elements and/or compounds that are not chemically combined.

Proton

Small positive particle found in the nucleus of an atom.

Electron

Small negatively charged particle within an atom that orbits the nucleus.

Neutron

A small particle which does not have a charge and found in the nucleus of an atom.

Ion

A charged particle (can be positive or negative).

Isotope

Atoms with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons.

Ionic Bond

A chemical bond between two ions of opposite charges. It is a bond between metals and non-metals.

Covalent Bond

Bonds between atoms where some of the electrons are shared. It is a bond between non-metals.

Metallic Bond

The bond between close-packed metal ions due to delocalised electrons.

Delocalised Electrons

Electrons which are free to move away through a collection of ions – as in a metal.

Intermolecular Force

A force between different molecules.

Monomer

A molecule that can be bonded to other identical molecules to form a polymer.

Polymer

Very large molecules with atoms linked to other atoms by covalent bonds.

Alloy

Formed when two metals, or a metal and a non-metal are mixed together to form a substance with different useful properties.

Nanoparticle

Very small particles on the nanoscale.

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Term 3: P1 Energy & P6 Waves

P1 Energy: The unit of Energy explores how different energy transfers take place and how electricity is made using the National Grid. It will also involve a high demand in the use of numeracy where students will need to be able to analyse data and use equations.

P6 Waves: The waves unit will explore the properties and use of different types of waves including those in the electromagnetic spectrum.

P1 Energy - 20 Mark online end of unit assessment covering: Energy Changes in Systems, Conservation and Dissipation of Energy, National and Global Energy Resources.

P2 Waves - 20 Mark online end of unit assessment covering: Waves in Air, Fluids and Solids, Electromagnetic Waves

Frequency

The number of waves produced in one second, in hertz.

Radiation

Transfer of thermal energy as a wave.

Refraction

A change of direction of a wave when it hits a boundary between two different media at an angle.

Transmission

Movement of energy or information from one position to another.

Potential Energy

Energy associated with an object because of its position or the arrangement of the particles of a system.

Kinetic Energy

Energy an object has because of its movement; kinetic energy is greater for objects with greater mass or higher speed.

Specific Heat Capacity

The energy needed to raise the temperature of 1kg of a substance by 1⁰C.

Efficiency

Useful output energy transfer divided by the total input energy transfer – may be expressed as a percentage or as a decimal.

Renewable

A source of energy that can be replaced or reused over a short time.

Non-renewable

A source of energy used by humans that will eventually run out.

Conservation of Energy

A fundamental principle of physics: energy cannot be created or destroyed, only stored, transferred or dissipated. This means that the total energy of a closed system is constant.

Dissipation

The spreading out of energy into the environment, so that it is sorted in less useful ways.

Power

The rate at which energy is transferred or the rate at which work is done; an energy transfer of 1 J/s is equal to a power of 1 W.

Specific Latent Heat

The energy needed to change the state of matter without raising it's temperature per unit mass.

Amplitude

Maximum displacement of a wave or oscillating object from its rest position.

Electromagnetic Spectrum

Electromagnetic waves ordered according to wavelength and frequency – ranging from radio waves to gamma rays.

Longintudinal Wave

Wave motion in which the vibrations of the particles of the medium are parallel to the direction of energy transfer.

Reflection

Process in which a surface does not absorb any energy, but instead bounces it back towards the source.

Transverse Wave

Wave motion in which the vibrations of the particles of the medium are perpendicular to the direction of energy transfer.

Wavelength

Distance between two corresponding points on a wave, in metres.

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Term 4: P3 Particle model of matter; P4 Atomic Structure; B3 Infection and response

P3 Particle Model of Matter revisits changes in state but at a molecular level and looks and the behaviour and energy changes of particles.

P4 Atomic Structure explores the different types of radiation from atoms. It will look at their effects, their uses and the hazards that they pose. Students will use mathematical skills to determine the half-life of different types of radiation and furthermore determine how old a substance may be based on the radiation it gives off.

B3 Infection and response focuses on coronary heart disease and other health issues. It will explore various diseases including cancer and will also look at the development of drugs and how vaccines work.

P3 Particle Model of Matter - 30 minute end of unit assessment covering: Changes of State, Particle Model.

P4 Atomic Structure - 30 minute end of unit assessment covering: Atoms and Isotopes, Nuclear Radiation, Hazards and Uses of Radioactive Emissions.

B3 Infection & Response - 30 minute end of unit assessment covering: Coronary Heart Disease, Lifestyle, Cancer, Communicable Diseases.

Isotope

Atoms with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons.

Kinetic Energy

Energy an object has because of its movement; kinetic energy is greater for objects with greater mass or higher speed.

Specific Latent Heat

The energy needed to change the state of matter without raising it's temperature per unit mass.

Recovery

A return to a normal state of health, mind, or strength.

Metabolism

The complex of physical and chemical processes occurring within a living cell or organism that are necessary for the maintenance of life. In metabolism some substances are broken down to yield energy for vital processes.

Antibody

Protein normally present in the body or produced in response to an antigen, which it neutralises, thus producing an immune response.

Immunity

When the body is protected from a pathogen as it has already encountered it and can therefore produce antibodies against it, rapidly.

Lymphocyte

White blood cells that produce antibodies and antitoxins to destroy pathogens.

Pathogen

Harmful microorganism that invades the body and causes infectious diseases.

Phagocyte

A type of white blood cell that enters tissues and engulfs pathogens then ingests them.

Placebo

A treatment that does not contain a drug.

Vaccination

Injection of a small quantity of inactive pathogen to protect us from developing the disease caused by the pathogen.

Internal Energy

The sum of all the kinetic energy and potential energy of each particle in a substance.

Half-Life

The time taken for the radioactivity of a specified isotope to fall to half its original value.

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Term 5: C7 Organic Chemistry & C9 Chemistry of the atmosphere

C7: In Organic Chemistry students will learn about the fractional distillation of crude oil. They will study the structure and function of key organic compounds, such as alkanes, alkenes and alcohols

C9: In Chemistry of the atmosphere students will learn that the Earth’s atmosphere is dynamic and forever changing. The causes of these changes are sometimes man-made and sometimes part of many natural cycles. Scientists use very complex software to predict weather and climate change as there are many variables that can influence this. Students will discuss strategies for reducing our negative impact on the environment.

Students will then move on to study the earth's natural resources from a chemical perspective. Topics include the treatment of wastewater, life-cycle assessments and recycling.

C7 Organic Chemistry - 30 minute end of unit assessment covering: Crude Oil, Hydrocarbons, Alkanes & Alkenes

C9 Chemistry of the Atmosphere - 30 minute end of unit assessment covering: Composition and Evolution of the Earth's Atmosphere, Carbon Dioxide and Methane as Greenhouse Gases, Common Atmospheric Pollutants and their Sources.

Using Resources - 30 minute end of unit assessment covering: How to treat and obtain water, and how to use less resources.

Alkane

A family of hydrocarbons found in crude oil with single covalent bonds e.g. methane.

Hydrocarbon

Compounds containing only hydrogen and carbon.

Fractional distillation

Crude oil is separated into fraction using this process of distillation where fraction of different boiling points distil off at different times.

Alkene

A family of hydrocarbons with at least one double bond.

Cracking

The process of breaking down larger hydrocarbons into more useful molecules.

Potable water

Water that is safe to drink.

Greenhouse Effect

When energy from the sun is transferred to the thermal energy store of gases in Earth's atmosphere.

Recycle

Processing a material so that it can be used again.

Oxidation

The loss of electrons or the gain of oxygen to an element or compound.

Reduction

The gain of electrons or the loss of oxygen to an element or compound.

Carbon Reduction

Using Carbon to remove oxygen from an element or compound. Often used in metal extraction. E.g. Iron oxide and Carbon react together to form Carbon dioxide and Iron.

Desalination

The process of removing salt from water via reverse osmosis or distillation.

Phytomining

Process of extracting metals from the ground, through harvesting plants which have absorbed the metal from the ground.

Bioleaching

Process where bacteria is used to produce leachate solutions that contain metal compounds.

Haber Process

Reversible reaction, where nitrogen and hydrogen are used to make ammonia.

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Term 6: B2 Organisation part 2; RPAs Exam Revision

B2 Organisation part 2 students will learn about the digestive system and the respiratory system. In each case they provide dissolved materials that need to be moved quickly around the body in the blood by the circulatory system. Damage to any of these systems can be debilitating if not fatal. Although there has been huge progress in surgical techniques, especially with regard to coronary heart disease, many interventions would not be necessary if individuals reduced their risks through improved diet and lifestyle. We will also learn how the plant’s transport system is dependent on environmental conditions to ensure that leaf cells are provided with the water and carbon dioxide that they need for photosynthesis.

Required Practical Activities : Students will use this time to go over RPAs from Year 9 and revise for end of year exam.

End of Year Exam consisting of topics students have covered throughout the year.

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