Year 8 — Science

Term 1: Matter & Organisms

Matter -

1. Periodic Table

2. Elements

Students will be looking at the physical properties of Group 1 & 7 elements. They will also learn about the structure of atoms and how to write chemical formulae of compounds.

Organisms -

1. Breathing

2. Digestion

Building on from cells in YR 7, students will focus on the respiratory system and learn how gas exchange occurs. They will then look at the digestive system and how food is broken down by different enzymes. Students will also evaluate the effects of an unbalanced diet.

Matter - 30 minute end of topic test covering: Atoms, Elements, Compounds, The Periodic Table, Group 1, Group 7, Group 0, Chemical Equations.

Organisms - 30 minute end of topic test covering: Respiratory System, Breathing & Respiration, Circulatory System, Effects of Exercise & Smoking, Food Groups, Diets, The Digestive System.

Breathing

The movement of air in and out of the lungs.

Atom

The smallest particle of a chemical element that can exist.

Particle

One of the extremely small constituents of matter, as an atom or nucleus.

Element

What all substances are made up of, and which contain only one type of atom.

Molecules

Two to thousands of atoms joined together. Most non-metals exist either as small or giant molecules.

Compound

Two or more types of atoms chemically joined together.

Chemical Formula

Shows the elements present in a compound and their relative proportions.

Periodic Table

Shows all the elements arranged in rows and columns.

Physical Properties

Features of a substance that can be observed without changing the substance itself.

Chemical Properties

Features of the way a substance reacts with other substances.

Reactants

Substances that react together, shown before the arrow in an equation.

Products

Substances formed in a chemical reaction, shown after the reaction arrow in an equation.

Conserved

When the quantity of something does not change after a process takes place.

Trachea (Windpipe)

Carries air from the mouth and nose to the lungs.

Bronchi

Two tubes which carry air to the lungs.

Bronchioles

Small tubes in the lung.

Alveoli

Small air sacs found at the end of each bronchiole.

Diaphragm

A sheet of muscle found underneath the lungs.

Aerobic Respiration

Breaking down glucose with oxygen to release energy and producing carbon dioxide and water.

Anaerobic Respiration

Relating to or requiring an absence of free oxygen.

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Term 2: Reactions & Waves

Reactions -

1. Chemical Energy

2. Types of Reaction

This unit extends on the work learnt in YR 7 by looking at the energy changes in chemical reactions. Thermal combustion and decomposition will also be introduced in this unit.

Waves -

1. Wave Effects

2. Wave Properties

This unit continues from the waves topic learnt in YR 7 and looks at the effect of waves in various pieces of equipment and living cells. Students will also further extend their knowledge on the properties of waves.

Reactions - 30 minute end of topic test covering: Chemical & Physical Reactions, Compounds, Combustion, Exothermic & Endothermic Reactions, Catalysts, Bonding.

Waves - 30 minute end of topic test covering: Wave Properties, Ultrasound, Ultraviolet Radiation, Speakers.

Frequency

The number of waves produced in one second, in hertz.

Catalysts

Substances that speed up chemical reactions but are unchanged at the end.

Ultraviolet (UV)

Waves with frequencies higher than light, which human eyes cannot detect.

Conduction

Transfer of thermal energy by the vibration of particles.

Convection

Transfer of thermal energy when particles in a heated fluid rise.

Radiation

Transfer of thermal energy as a wave.

Chemical Formula

Shows the elements present in a compound and their relative proportions.

Fuel

Stores energy in a chemical store which it can release as heat.

Exothermic Reaction

One in which energy is given out, usually as heat or light. Temperature rises in an exothermic reaction.

Endothermic Reaction

One in which energy is taken in from it's surroundings, usually as heat. Temperature decreases in an endothermic reaction.

Chemical Bond

Force that holds atoms together in molecules.

Enzymes

Substances that speed up the chemical reactions of digestion.

Ultrasound

Sound waves with frequencies higher than the human auditory range.

Microphone

Turns the pressure wave of sound hitting it into an electrical signal.

Loudspeaker

Turns an electrical signal into a pressure wave of sound.

Waves

Vibrations that transport energy from place to place without transporting matter.

Longintudinal Wave

Wave motion in which the vibrations of the particles of the medium are parallel to the direction of energy transfer.

Transverse Wave

Wave motion in which the vibrations of the particles of the medium are perpendicular to the direction of energy transfer.

Wavelength

Distance between two corresponding points on a wave, in metres.

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Term 3: Electromagnets & Genes

Electromagnets -

1. Electromagnets

2. Magnetism

Using their knowledge from YR 7, students will learn how an electromagnet can be made and how to change its strength. Students will then use the idea of field lines to show how the direction or strength of the field around a magnet.

Genes -

1. Evolution

2. Inheritance

Extending from the topic on Variation in YR 7, students will evaluate the evidence for evolution. They will learn how genes are inherited and how a change in the DNA may affect an organism and its offspring.

20 Mark end of unit online assessment covering: Electromagnets.

20 Mark end of unit online assessment covering: Genes.

Field

The area where other objects feel a gravitational force.

DNA

A molecule found in the nucleus of cells that contains genetic information.

Chromosomes

Thread-like structures containing tightly coiled DNA.

Solenoid

Wire wound into a tight coil, part of an electromagnet.

Gene

A unit of heredity which is transferred from a parent to offspring and is held to determine some characteristic of the offspring.

Inherited Characteristics

Features that are passed from parents to their offspring.

Extinct

When no more individuals of a species remain.

Biodiversity

The variety of living things. It is measured as the differences between individuals of the same species, or the number of different species in an ecosystem.

Mutation

The changing of the structure of a gene, resulting in a variant form which may be transmitted to subsequent generations.

Evolution

Change in the genetic composition of a population during successive generations, often resulting in the development of new species.

Thermal Conductor

Material that allows heat to move quickly through it.

Thermal Insulator

Material that only allows heat to travel slowly through it.

Electromagnet

A non-permanent magnet turned on and off by controlling the current through it.

Magnetic Force

Non-contact force from a magnet on a magnetic material.

Permanent Magnet

An object that is magnetic all of the time.

Magnetic Poles

The ends of a magnetic field, called north-seeking (N) and south-seeking poles (S).

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Term 4: Earth & Energy

Earth -

1. Climate

2. Earth Resources

Continuing from the structure of the Earth in YR 7, students will learn about the carbon cycle and evaluate the impacts that global warming has on the earth. Students will research how to extract and recycle materials.

Energy -

1. Work

2. Heating & Cooling

This unit requires students to understand how levers work and compare the work needed to move objects. They will expand their knowledge of energy to explain how heat is transferred and how temperature changes when objects are heated or cooled.

Earth - 30 minute end of topic test covering: Fossil Fuels, Greenhouse Effect, Carbon Cycle, Metal Ores, Electrolysis, Recycling.

Energy - 30 minute end of topic test covering: Work Done, Levers, Displacement, Conductors & Insulators, Conduction, Convection, Radiation.

Work Done

The transfer of energy when a force moves an object, measured in joules.

Thermal Conductor

Material that allows heat to move quickly through it.

Thermal Insulator

Material that only allows heat to travel slowly through it.

Equilibrium

State of an object when opposing forces are balanced.

Deformation

Changing shape due to a force.

Linear Relationship

When two variables are graphed and show a straight line which goes through the origin, and they can be called proportional.

Resultant Force

Single force which can replace all the forces acting on an object and have the same effect.

Newton

Unit for measuring forces (N).

Friction

Force opposing motion which is caused by the interaction of surfaces moving over one another. It is called 'drag' if one is a fluid.

Fluid

A substance with no fixed shape - a gas or a liquid.

Pressure

The ratio of force to surface area, measured in Pascals (Pa) , and how it causes stresses in solids.

Upthrust

The upward force that a liquid or gas exerts on a body floating in it.

Atmospheric Pressure

The pressure caused by the weight of the air above a surface.

Core

Soft iron metal which the solenoid is wrapped around.

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Term 5: Forces & Ecosystems

Forces -

1. Contact Forces

2. Pressure

This topic extends on the work on forces completed in YR 7 looking at concepts such as contact and non-contact forces, and how materials behave when they are stretched or squashed. Students will then go on to explain how fluids behave under pressure.

Ecosystems -

1. Respiration

2. Photosynthesis

Students will compare aerobic and anaerobic respiration. They will then learn how photosynthesis takes place and analyse what conditions can affect the rate of photosynthesis.

Ecosystems - 30 minute end of topic test covering: Aerobic & Anaerobic Respiration, Yeast Fermentation, Photosynthesis, Stomata, Plant Adaptations.

Forces - 30 minute end of topic test covering: Balanced Forces, Resultant Force, Friction, Hooke’s Law, Upthrust, Pressure, Motion.

Force

Something which changes the shape of objects and changes the way they are moving.

Lever

A type of machine which is a rigid bar that pivots about a point.

Pressure

The ratio of force to surface area, in N/ m2 , and how it causes stresses in solids.

Global Warming

The gradual increase in surface temperature of the Earth.

Fossil Fuels

Remains of dead organisms that are burned as fuels, releasing carbon dioxide.

Greenhouse Effect

When energy from the sun is transferred to the thermal energy store of gases in Earth's atmosphere.

Natural Resources

Materials from the Earth which act as raw materials for making a variety of products.

Mineral

Naturally occurring metal or metal compound.

Ore

Naturally occurring rock containing sufficient minerals for extraction.

Recycle

Processing a material so that it can be used again.

Aerobic Respiration

Breaking down glucose with oxygen to release energy and producing carbon dioxide and water.

Anaerobic Respiration

Releasing energy from the breakdown of glucose without oxygen, producing lactic acid (in animals) and ethanol and carbon dioxide (in plants and microorganisms).

Fertilisers

Chemicals containing minerals that plants need to build new tissues.

Photosynthesis

A process where plants and algae turn carbon dioxide and water into glucose and release oxygen.

Chlorophyll

Green pigment in plants and algae which absorbs light energy.

Stomata

Pores in the bottom of a leaf which open and close to let gases in and out.

Gaseous Exchange

The movement of oxygen and carbon dioxide into and out of the leaf.

Diffusion

The random movement of particles from a region of high concentration to low.

Osmosis

The movement of water from a region of high water content to a region of low water content.

Resultant Force

The overall force on an object, thinking about direction.

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Term 6: Revision/Exam/Scientific Skills & Science Project

Students will revise everything they have learnt this year in preparation for their end of year exam.

End of Year Exam

Calculate

To mathematically determine something.

Analyse

Examine something in order to interpret and explain it.

Discuss

Take into account all relevant information.

Construct

To create an answer or idea.

Critique

Evaluate in a detailed and critical way.

Justify

To explain with good reasoning.

Examine

Inspect something thoroughly.

Investigate

Systematically carry out inquiry.

Hypothesise

To propose an explanation made on the basis of limited evidence as a starting point for further investigation.

Explain

Make something clear in as much detail as possible.

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