Year 8 — Science

Term 1: Matter & Electromagnets (V & R)

Matter -

1. Periodic Table

2. Elements

Students will learn about the organisation of the periodic table and the properties and trends in groups 1, 7 and 0. They will also learn about the structure of the atom, how to write chemical formulae of compounds and to predict the chemical properties of unfamiliar elements using their understanding of chemical reactions.

Electromagnets -

1. Voltage

2. Resistance

Students will learn about the conductivity of different materials, the uses of electricity and the differences between series and parallel circuits. Students will also learn how to use models to explain current, voltage and resistance.

Matter - 24 Mark end of unit online assessment covering: atoms, elements, compounds, the Periodic Table, groups 1 7 and 0, chemical formulae and equations.

Electromagnets (V & R) - 24 Mark end of unit online assessment covering: current, charge, series and parallel circuits, voltage and resistance.

Breathing

The movement of air in and out of the lungs.

Atom

The smallest particle of a chemical element that can exist.

Particle

One of the extremely small constituents of matter, as an atom or nucleus.

Element

What all substances are made up of, and which contain only one type of atom.

Molecules

Two to thousands of atoms joined together. Most non-metals exist either as small or giant molecules.

Compound

Two or more types of atoms chemically joined together.

Chemical Formula

Shows the elements present in a compound and their relative proportions.

Periodic Table

Shows all the elements arranged in rows and columns.

Physical Properties

Features of a substance that can be observed without changing the substance itself.

Chemical Properties

Features of the way a substance reacts with other substances.

Reactants

Substances that react together, shown before the arrow in an equation.

Products

Substances formed in a chemical reaction, shown after the reaction arrow in an equation.

Conserved

When the quantity of something does not change after a process takes place.

Trachea (Windpipe)

Carries air from the mouth and nose to the lungs.

Bronchi

Two tubes which carry air to the lungs.

Bronchioles

Small tubes in the lung.

Alveoli

Small air sacs found at the end of each bronchiole.

Diaphragm

A sheet of muscle found underneath the lungs.

Aerobic Respiration

Breaking down glucose with oxygen to release energy and producing carbon dioxide and water.

Anaerobic Respiration

Relating to or requiring an absence of free oxygen.

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Term 2: Reactions & Organisms

Reactions -

1. Chemical Energy

2. Types of Reaction

This unit extends on the work learnt in Year 7 by looking at the energy changes in chemical reactions. Students learn about exothermic and endothermic reactions and how to determine whether a reaction releases or takes in energy. Students also learn about thermal combustion and decomposition and extend their knowledge of chemical equations to these reactions.

Organisms -

1. Breathing

2. Digestion

This unit extends on the work done in Year 7 by looking at the structure and function of the lungs including factors that could affect breathing rate. Students then study the process of digestion including enzymes, healthy diet and the effects of smoking on the lungs.

Reactions - 24 Mark end of unit online assessment covering: Fuels, combustion, exothermic & endothermic reactions, conservation of mass, catalysts.

Organisms - 24 Mark end of unit online assessment covering: Diet, the digestive system, exercise, the breathing system, gaseous exchange, smoking.

Frequency

The number of waves produced in one second, in hertz.

Catalysts

Substances that speed up chemical reactions but are unchanged at the end.

Ultraviolet (UV)

Waves with frequencies higher than light, which human eyes cannot detect.

Conduction

Transfer of thermal energy by the vibration of particles.

Convection

Transfer of thermal energy when particles in a heated fluid rise.

Radiation

Transfer of thermal energy as a wave.

Chemical Formula

Shows the elements present in a compound and their relative proportions.

Fuel

Stores energy in a chemical store which it can release as heat.

Exothermic Reaction

One in which energy is given out, usually as heat or light. Temperature rises in an exothermic reaction.

Endothermic Reaction

One in which energy is taken in from it's surroundings, usually as heat. Temperature decreases in an endothermic reaction.

Chemical Bond

Force that holds atoms together in molecules.

Enzymes

Substances that speed up the chemical reactions of digestion.

Ultrasound

Sound waves with frequencies higher than the human auditory range.

Microphone

Turns the pressure wave of sound hitting it into an electrical signal.

Loudspeaker

Turns an electrical signal into a pressure wave of sound.

Waves

Vibrations that transport energy from place to place without transporting matter.

Longintudinal Wave

Wave motion in which the vibrations of the particles of the medium are parallel to the direction of energy transfer.

Transverse Wave

Wave motion in which the vibrations of the particles of the medium are perpendicular to the direction of energy transfer.

Wavelength

Distance between two corresponding points on a wave, in metres.

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Term 3: Waves

Waves -

1. Wave effects

2. Wave properties

This unit extends the work done in Year 7 and students learn how waves can be used in everyday objects including microphones and loud speakers. Students focus on wave properties and how they travel through materials. They study reflection and refraction (in terms of wave speed), longitudinal waves and how these differ from transverse waves and calculation of wave speed.

Revision of topics learnt to date to consolidate learning.

Waves - 24 Mark end of unit online assessment covering: Properties of waves, sound, light, reflection, refraction, longitudinal and transverse waves, applications of waves, calculating wave speed.

Field

The area where other objects feel a gravitational force.

DNA

A molecule found in the nucleus of cells that contains genetic information.

Chromosomes

Thread-like structures containing tightly coiled DNA.

Solenoid

Wire wound into a tight coil, part of an electromagnet.

Gene

A unit of heredity which is transferred from a parent to offspring and is held to determine some characteristic of the offspring.

Inherited Characteristics

Features that are passed from parents to their offspring.

Extinct

When no more individuals of a species remain.

Biodiversity

The variety of living things. It is measured as the differences between individuals of the same species, or the number of different species in an ecosystem.

Mutation

The changing of the structure of a gene, resulting in a variant form which may be transmitted to subsequent generations.

Evolution

Change in the genetic composition of a population during successive generations, often resulting in the development of new species.

Thermal Conductor

Material that allows heat to move quickly through it.

Thermal Insulator

Material that only allows heat to travel slowly through it.

Electromagnet

A non-permanent magnet turned on and off by controlling the current through it.

Magnetic Force

Non-contact force from a magnet on a magnetic material.

Permanent Magnet

An object that is magnetic all of the time.

Magnetic Poles

The ends of a magnetic field, called north-seeking (N) and south-seeking poles (S).

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Term 4: Earth & Energy

Earth -

1. Climate

2. Earth Resources

Continuing from the structure of the Earth in Year 7, students will learn about the carbon cycle and evaluate the impacts that global warming has on the earth. Students will research how to extract and recycle materials.

Energy -

1. Work

2. Heating & Cooling

This unit requires students to understand how levers work and compare the work needed to move objects. They will expand their knowledge of energy to explain how heat is transferred and how temperature changes when objects are heated or cooled.

Earth - 24 Mark end of unit online assessment covering: Fossil fuels, greenhouse effect, carbon cycle, extracting metals from their ores, the earth;s resources.

Energy - 24 Mark end of unit online assessment covering: Work done, levers, displacement, conductors & insulators, conduction, convection, radiation.

Work Done

The transfer of energy when a force moves an object, measured in joules.

Thermal Conductor

Material that allows heat to move quickly through it.

Thermal Insulator

Material that only allows heat to travel slowly through it.

Equilibrium

State of an object when opposing forces are balanced.

Deformation

Changing shape due to a force.

Linear Relationship

When two variables are graphed and show a straight line which goes through the origin, and they can be called proportional.

Resultant Force

Single force which can replace all the forces acting on an object and have the same effect.

Newton

Unit for measuring forces (N).

Friction

Force opposing motion which is caused by the interaction of surfaces moving over one another. It is called 'drag' if one is a fluid.

Fluid

A substance with no fixed shape - a gas or a liquid.

Pressure

The ratio of force to surface area, measured in Pascals (Pa) , and how it causes stresses in solids.

Upthrust

The upward force that a liquid or gas exerts on a body floating in it.

Atmospheric Pressure

The pressure caused by the weight of the air above a surface.

Core

Soft iron metal which the solenoid is wrapped around.

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Term 5: Forces & Ecosystems

Forces -

1. Contact Forces

2. Pressure

This topic extends on the work on forces completed in Year 7 looking at concepts such as contact and non-contact forces, how materials behave when they are stretched or squashed and how forces affect materials. Students learn to explain how fluids behave under pressure and the affect of air resistance and drag forces on the movement of objects.

Ecosystems -

1. Respiration

2. Photosynthesis

Students will compare aerobic and anaerobic respiration. They will then learn how photosynthesis takes place and analyse what conditions can affect the rate of photosynthesis.

Forces - Forces - 24 Mark end of topic test covering: Extension of a spring, pressure in fluids, friction, resultant forces, calculating pressure.

Ecosystems - 24 Mark end of topic test covering: Aerobic & anaerobic respiration, fermentation, photosynthesis and rate of photosynthesis, stomata, plant adaptations.

Force

Something which changes the shape of objects and changes the way they are moving.

Lever

A type of machine which is a rigid bar that pivots about a point.

Pressure

The ratio of force to surface area, in N/ m2 , and how it causes stresses in solids.

Global Warming

The gradual increase in surface temperature of the Earth.

Fossil Fuels

Remains of dead organisms that are burned as fuels, releasing carbon dioxide.

Greenhouse Effect

When energy from the sun is transferred to the thermal energy store of gases in Earth's atmosphere.

Natural Resources

Materials from the Earth which act as raw materials for making a variety of products.

Mineral

Naturally occurring metal or metal compound.

Ore

Naturally occurring rock containing sufficient minerals for extraction.

Recycle

Processing a material so that it can be used again.

Aerobic Respiration

Breaking down glucose with oxygen to release energy and producing carbon dioxide and water.

Anaerobic Respiration

Releasing energy from the breakdown of glucose without oxygen, producing lactic acid (in animals) and ethanol and carbon dioxide (in plants and microorganisms).

Fertilisers

Chemicals containing minerals that plants need to build new tissues.

Photosynthesis

A process where plants and algae turn carbon dioxide and water into glucose and release oxygen.

Chlorophyll

Green pigment in plants and algae which absorbs light energy.

Stomata

Pores in the bottom of a leaf which open and close to let gases in and out.

Gaseous Exchange

The movement of oxygen and carbon dioxide into and out of the leaf.

Diffusion

The random movement of particles from a region of high concentration to low.

Osmosis

The movement of water from a region of high water content to a region of low water content.

Resultant Force

The overall force on an object, thinking about direction.

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Term 6: Revision/Exam/Scientific Skills

Working Scientifically -

In this topic students will build on the work they did in Year 7 and develop their investigative skills further. They will be required to plan and carry out an experiment based on a hypothesis, collect data and draw a conclusion from their results. The students will also learn how to identify anomalies in their results, decide on the appropriate graph or chart to represent their results and evaluate their method to suggest improvements.

Students will revise everything they have learnt this year in preparation for their end of year exam.

End of Year Exam

Calculate

To mathematically determine something.

Analyse

Examine something in order to interpret and explain it.

Discuss

Take into account all relevant information.

Construct

To create an answer or idea.

Critique

Evaluate in a detailed and critical way.

Justify

To explain with good reasoning.

Examine

Inspect something thoroughly.

Investigate

Systematically carry out inquiry.

Hypothesise

To propose an explanation made on the basis of limited evidence as a starting point for further investigation.

Explain

Make something clear in as much detail as possible.

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