Year 10 — Science

Term 1: Biology - B4 Bioenergetics (& B2 Organisation -plant tissues)

In this section we will explore how plants harness the Sun’s energy in photosynthesis in order to make food. This process liberates oxygen which has built up over millions of years in the Earth’s atmosphere. Both animals and plants use this oxygen to oxidise food in a process called aerobic respiration which transfers the energy that the organism needs to perform its functions. Conversely, anaerobic respiration does not require oxygen to transfer energy. During vigorous exercise the human body is unable to supply the cells with sufficient oxygen and it switches to anaerobic respiration. This process will supply energy but also causes the build-up of lactic acid in muscles which causes fatigue.

40 minute end of unit assessment covering: B4 Bioenergetics (& B2 Organisation -plant tissues)

Hormone

A chemical messenger that acts on target organs in the body.

Metabolism

The complex of physical and chemical processes occurring within a living cell or organism that are necessary for the maintenance of life. In metabolism some substances are broken down to yield energy for vital processes.

Recovery

A return to a normal state of health, mind, or strength.

Homeostasis

The tendency towards a relatively stable equilibrium between interdependent elements, especially as maintained by physiological processes.

Vasodilation

The widening of blood vessels.

Vasoconstriction

The narrowing of blood vessels.

Receptor

A sensor that detects a stimulus.

Stimulus

A change in a condition that the body can detect.

Effector

A neuron or organ that brings about a corrective change.

Glycogen

A hormone which acts to increase blood sugar levels.

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Term 1: Chemistry - C4 Chemical changes 1st half

Understanding of chemical changes began when people began experimenting with chemical reactions in a systematic way and organising their results logically. Knowing about these different chemical changes meant that scientists could begin to predict exactly what new substances would be formed and use this knowledge to develop a wide range of different materials and processes. It also helped biochemists to understand the complex reactions that take place in living organisms. The extraction of important resources from the Earth makes use of the way that some elements and compounds react with each other and how easily they can be ‘pulled apart’.

40 minute end of unit assessment covering: C4 Chemical changes

Alkane

A family of hydrocarbons found in crude oil with single covalent bonds e.g. methane.

Hydrocarbon

Compounds containing only hydrogen and carbon.

Fractional distillation

Crude oil is separated into fraction using this process of distillation where fraction of different boiling points distil off at different times.

Alkene

A family of hydrocarbons with at least one double bond.

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Term 1: Physics - P2 Electricity

Students will learn about the generation and usage of electricity. They will also study current, voltage and resistance in relation to circuits. Students will look at the production of electricity and consider viable options for the future.

40 minute end of unit assessment covering: Current, Voltage, Resistance, and Domestic Uses & Safety.

Resistance

A property of a component, making it difficult for charge to pass through, in ohms (Ω).

Current

Flow of electric charge, in amperes (A).

Voltage

An electromotive force or potential difference expressed in volts.

Series Circuit

A series circuit is a circuit in which resistors are arranged in a chain, so the current has only one path to take. The current is the same through each resistor.

Parallel Circuit

A parallel circuit has two or more paths for current to flow through. Voltage is the same across each component of the parallel circuit. The sum of the currents through each path is equal to the total current that flows from the source.

Power

The rate at which energy is transferred or the rate at which work is done; an energy transfer of 1 J/s is equal to a power of 1 W.

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Term 2: Biology -B5 Homeostasis

Students will consider the fact that cells in the body can only survive within narrow limits. They require a constant temperature, pH and a constant supply of dissolved food and water. In this section we will explore the nervous system and how it can bring about fast responses. We will also explore the hormonal system which usually brings about much slower changes. Hormonal coordination is particularly important in reproduction since it controls the menstrual cycle. An understanding of the role of hormones in reproduction has allowed scientists to develop not only contraceptive drugs but also drugs which can increase fertility.

40 minute end of unit assessment covering: Homeostasis

Gene

A unit of heredity which is transferred from a parent to offspring and is held to determine some characteristic of the offspring.

Mutation

The changing of the structure of a gene, resulting in a variant form which may be transmitted to subsequent generations.

Evolution

Change in the genetic composition of a population during successive generations, often resulting in the development of new species.

Inheritance

The genetic characters transmitted from parent to offspring, taken collectively.

Asexual

(of reproduction) Not involving the fusion of gametes.

Selection

A process in which environmental or genetic influences determine which types of organism thrive better than others, regarded as a factor in evolution.

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Term 2: Chemistry - C4 Chemical changes 2nd half & C5 Energy changes

Understanding of chemical changes began when people began experimenting with chemical reactions in a systematic way and organising their results logically. Knowing about these different chemical changes meant that scientists could begin to predict exactly what new substances would be formed and use this knowledge to develop a wide range of different materials and processes. It also helped biochemists to understand the complex reactions that take place in living organisms. The extraction of important resources from the Earth makes use of the way that some elements and compounds react with each other and how easily they can be ‘pulled apart’. Students will also consider that energy changes are an important part of chemical reactions. The interaction of particles often involves transfers of energy due to the breaking and formation of bonds. Reactions in which energy is released to the surroundings are exothermic reactions, while those that take in thermal energy are endothermic.

Energy Changes - 40 minute end of unit assessment covering: Exothermic and Endothermic Reactions.

Chemical Analysis - 40 minute end of unit assessment covering: Purity, Formulation and Chromatography, Identification of Common Gases.

Analyse

Examine something in order to interpret and explain it.

Carbon Reduction

Using Carbon to remove oxygen from an element or compound. Often used in metal extraction. E.g. Iron oxide and Carbon react together to form Carbon dioxide and Iron.

Chemical Change

Relating to a reaction in which the products have different names and formulas to the reactants.

Electrolysis

The use of electricity to split a compound into it's constituent elements.

Ionic Equation

A chemical equation in which only the ions which are involved in the reaction are included.

Oxidation

The loss of electrons or the gain of oxygen to an element or compound.

Physical Changes

Relating to chemicals not changing formula or name, only state or appearance.

Reduction

The gain of electrons or the loss of oxygen to an element or compound.

Reversible

(of the effects of a process or condition) Capable of being reversed so that the previous state is restored.

Reactant

A substance that takes part in and undergoes change during a reaction.

Product

A substance that is formed when two or more chemicals react. When a chemical reaction takes place, a new substance is often created from the atoms or molecules of the original substances. There are often multiple products formed in a reaction.

Activation Energy

The amount of energy reactant particles require in order to collide successfully and form the product(s) of a reaction.

Chromatography

The separating of the components of a mixture based on their solubility.

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Term 2: Physics- P7 Magnestism and Electromagnetism

Students will learn about the electromagnetic effects that are used in a wide variety of devices. Engineers make use of the fact that a magnet moving in a coil can produce electric current and also that when current flows around a magnet it can produce movement. It means that systems that involve control or communications can take full advantage of this.

The waves unit will explore the properties and use of different types of waves including those in the electromagnetic spectrum.

Electromagnetism - 40 minute end of unit assessment covering: Permanent and Induced Magnetism, Magnetic Forces and Fields, the Motor Effect.

Frequency

The number of waves produced in one second, in hertz.

Amplitude

Maximum displacement of a wave or oscillating object from its rest position.

Electromagnetic Spectrum

Electromagnetic waves ordered according to wavelength and frequency – ranging from radio waves to gamma rays.

Longintudinal Wave

Wave motion in which the vibrations of the particles of the medium are parallel to the direction of energy transfer.

Transverse Wave

Wave motion in which the vibrations of the particles of the medium are perpendicular to the direction of energy transfer.

Electromagnet

A soft metal core made into a magnet by the passage of electric current through a coil surrounding it.

Repulsion

The force that acts between bodies of like electric charge or magnetic polarity, tending to separate them.

Attraction

The electric or magnetic force that acts between oppositely charged bodies, tending to draw them together.

Current

The time rate of flow of electric charge, in the direction that a positive moving charge would take and having magnitude equal to the quantity of charge per unit time: measured in amperes.

Wavelength

Distance between two corresponding points on a wave, in metres.

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Term 3: Biology - B6 Inheritance, variation and evolution

Students will discover how meiosis produces unique offspring, how gene mutations occur continuously and on rare occasions can affect the functioning of organisms both positively and negatively. In turn we will critique the theory of evolution whilst understanding the idea of survival of the fittest. We will also investigate cloning and genetic engineering.

20 Mark end of unit online assessment covering: Inheritance, variation and evolution

Organism

An individual animal, plant, or single-celled life form.

Food Chain

A series of organisms each dependent on the next as a source of food.

Food Web

A system of interlocking and interdependent food chains.

Pyramid of Biomass

A pyramid of biomass is a better diagram to use. A pyramid of biomass shows the total mass of organisms at each stage of a food chain. In general, all producers have a higher biomass than the primary consumer, so a pyramid will always be produced.

Decomposition

The state or process of rotting; decay.

Excretion

(in living organisms and cells) The process of eliminating or expelling waste matter.

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Term 3: Chemistry - C6 Rates of chemical change & C8 Chemical analysis

This unit explores how chemical reactions can occur at vastly different rates. Students learn about the variables that affect the rate of reaction and explore how to maximise yield of desired product.

20 Mark end of unit online assessment covering: C6 Rates of chemical change & C8 Chemical analysis.

Reversible Reaction

(of the effects of a process or condition) Capable of being reversed so that the previous state is restored.

Irreversible

Not able to be undone or altered.

Reactant

A substance that takes part in and undergoes change during a reaction.

Reaction

A chemical process in which substances act mutually on each other and are changed into different substances, or one substance changes into other substances.

Product

A substance that is formed when two or more chemicals react. When a chemical reaction takes place, a new substance is often created from the atoms or molecules of the original substances. There are often multiple products formed in a reaction.

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Term 3: Physics - P5 Forces 1

In the first half of forces, students will examine forces and their effects on objects. They will look at both contact and non-contact forces, calculate resultant forces and will look at the motion of objects.

20 Mark end of unit online assessment covering: Forces and Motion, Momentum.

Air Resistance

The force on an object moving through the air that causes it to slow down (also known as drag).

Balanced

Forces acting on an object that are the same size but act in opposite directions.

Gravity

A non-contact force that acts between two masses.

Newtonmeter

A piece of equipment used to measure force in newtons.

Non-contact Force

A force that acts between objects that are not touching.

Unbalanced

When forces on an object are opposite and unequal.

Upthrust

The force on an object in a liquid or gas that pushes up.

Weight

The amount of force with which gravity pulls something towards the Earth.

Resultant Force

The overall force on an object, thinking about direction.

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Term 4: Biology - B7 Ecology

Students will consider the Sun as a source of energy that passes through ecosystems. Materials including carbon and water are continually recycled by the living world, being released through respiration of animals, plants and decomposing microorganisms and taken up by plants in photosynthesis. All species live in ecosystems composed of complex communities of animals and plants dependent on each other and that are adapted to particular conditions, both abiotic and biotic. These ecosystems provide essential services that support human life and continued development. In order to continue to benefit from these services humans need to engage with the environment in a sustainable way. In this section we will explore how humans are threatening biodiversity as well as the natural systems that support it. We will also consider some actions we need to take to ensure our future health, prosperity and well-being.

40 minute end of unit assessment covering: B7 Ecology

Balanced Equation

A situation in which different elements are equal or in the correct proportions.

Atomic Mass

The mass of an atom of a chemical element expressed in atomic mass units. It is approximately equivalent to the number of protons and neutrons in the atom (the mass number) or to the average number allowing for the relative abundances of different isotope

Yield

To supply or produce something.

Molecular Formula

A chemical formula that gives the total number of atoms of each element in each molecule of a substance — compare structural formula.

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Term 4: Chemistry - C3 Quantitative chemistry

Building on prior knowledge of the periodic table students will study how to interpret chemical reactions in terms of quantities of reactants.They will be taught how to use the periodic table to predict the outcomes of chemical reactions. Units may be taught in rotation.

40 minute end of unit assessment covering: Quantitative chemistry

Weight

The force of gravity on an object (N).

Resultant Force

The overall force on an object, thinking about direction.

Momentum

The product of an object's mass and velocity

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Term 4: Physics -P5 Forces 2

Students will cover motion, distance and displacement, and acceleration and will be able to identify the factors that affect breaking distance. They will also learn about Newton's Laws and their application. Students will also learn about waves.

40 minute end of unit assessment covering: Forces

Photosynthesis

A process where plants and algae turn carbon dioxide and water into glucose and release oxygen.

Aerobic Respiration

Breaking down glucose with oxygen to release energy and producing carbon dioxide and water.

Anaerobic Respiration

Relating to or requiring an absence of free oxygen.

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Term 5: Revision in Biology, Chemistry and Physics

Students will prepare for the Year 10 mock papers by revising the units taught to them in year 9. Relevant year 10 units are to be revised for homework.

End of Year Exam consisting of topics students have covered throughout the year.

Atmosphere

The envelope of gases surrounding the earth or another planet.

Pollution

The presence in or introduction into the environment of a substance which has harmful or poisonous effects.

Sustainability

The ability to be sustained, supported, upheld, or confirmed. Environmental Science. the quality of not being harmful to the environment or depleting natural resources, and thereby supporting long-term ecological balance.

Renewable

A natural resource or source of energy that is not depleted by use, such as water, wind, or solar power.

Temperature

The degree or intensity of heat present in a substance or object, especially as expressed according to a comparative scale and shown by a thermometer or perceived by touch.

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Term 6: Biology - B1 Cell Biology

In the final term of the year students will build on prior knowledge of Biology Combined Science; B1 cells. Students following the Trilogy science pathway will be introduced to a higher level of demand. Those who are continuing with the separate science route will go on to learn about culturing microorganisms and investigating the affects of antiseptics on bacterial growth.

End of Year Exam consisting of topics students have covered throughout the year.

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Term 6: Chemistry - C1 Atomic structure and the periodic table

In the final term of the year students will build on the prior knowledge of Chemistry Combined Science; C1 Atomic structure and the periodic table. Trilogy students will be introduced to a higher level of demand. Those who are continuing with the separate science route will go on to learn about the chemical and physical properties of transition metals.

There will be no formal assessment at the end of Term 6, a grade will be estimated on the mock paper alongside the years performance.

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Term 6: Physics -P1 Energy

In the final term of the year students will build on prior knowledge of Physics Combined Science; P1 cells. Students following the Trilogy science pathway will be introduced to a higher level of demand. Those who are continuing with the separate science route will go on to learn about factors affecting thermal insulation.

There will be no formal assessment at the end of Term 6, a grade will be estimated on the mock paper alongside the years performance.

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